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OpINION                                                                MARCH 25, 2022  |     The Indian Eye 17

        ence with the Ministry of Education                                                                   hodets-RU (“Sirius”) and Forpost
        and Science and the Russian Acad-                                                                     (“Outpost”)  drones  from  Israel.
        emy of Sciences, which led to the                                                                     Ukraine, on the other hand, is using
        10-point  statement  that  specifically                                                               a Turkish-made TB2 drone, which
        focuses on innovative and AI-driven                                                                   works autonomously and can per-
        solutions. In 2019, another initiative                                                                form laser-guided artillery strikes.
        was led by the Russian government                                                                         With the proliferation of AI, the
        for National Strategy for the De-                                                                     weapons of war are becoming more
        velopment of AI with AI Federal                                                                       technologically equipped, which is
        Project inclined towards the private                                                                  changing  the  battlefield  scenarios,
        sector. The AI Roadmap drafted by                                                                     as  seen  in  Russia’s  current  incur-
        SberBank estimated an investment                                                                      sion in Ukraine. As Russia is being
        of US$ 5.13 billion, which was later                                                                  suspected of having used AI-based
        revised to US$ 3.83 billion.                                                                          cyber-attacks on Ukraine, it is also
            In  2021,  the  Russian  President                                                                believed that the US and other
        again stated that 2021 will be the year                                                               NATO  members are also pursuing
        of Science and Technology in Russia                                                                   similar tactics against Russia. How-
        with a breakthrough in technology,                                                                    ever, there is no denying that Rus-
        economy and social progress. In the                                                                   sia’s AI-enabled military capabilities
        modernization of Russian armed    India External Affairs Minister Dr S Jaishankar meets Iran President Ebrahim Raisi and handed   and autonomy have made its forces
        forces, AI has been highlighted as a   over a personal message from Prime Minister Narendra Modi in Tehran last year (ANI Photo)  more lethal.
        priority for integrating autonomous                                                                       The anonymity with the use of
        and  robotic  weapon  systems.  For                                                                   AI-enabled asymmetric warfare like
        this, the National Defense Manage-  already used to deploy such systems.   gets through the automated signal   cyber warfare and information war-
        ment Centre has been established to   Some of the world’s biggest AI   collection and AI-enabled signals   fare  allows  countries  to  flex  their
        set up coordination between various   companies have become the bat-  intelligence (SIGINT).          asymmetric power without any retri-
        military units.                   tlefield  for  information  warfare   The Joint All-Command &       bution. Furthermore, this makes the
            With the recent announcement   amidst  this  conflict,  with  the  data   Control (JADC2) has become to-  impact more offensive by destabiliz-
        by Xi Jinping on China–Russia “no   and services becoming vital links   day’s  buzzword  across  militaries.   ing the country without any restric-
        limits partnership” and deciding to   to  it.  Some  companies  like  Apple   Russia calls it an Automated Con-  tions of geography, causing direct,
        back each other on Ukraine and    and Dell have ceased their sales in   trol System (ACS) that connects all   material and economic impact on
        Taiwan  conflicts,  it  is  evident  that   Russia and have removed apps like   the domains like air, sea, land, cyber   the opponent.
        these two nations will have more   RT News and Sputnik News from    and space together, collects and dis-  AI will play a significant role in
        collaborations in future. Russia also   the  app  store.  To  mitigate  the  dis-  tribute the data from sensors shoot-  developing advanced autonomous
        suggested China for partnership in   information campaigns, companies   ers into one information space.   systems, and the countries with in-
        garnering and building Russia’s AI   like Meta, Twitter and Telegram are   Russia is exuberantly working   digenous development of such sys-
        readiness in the wake of Ukraine   either  limiting  or  suspending  the   on using AI and autonomous sys-  tems will lead the future battlefield,
        crisis. Russia’s AI programme func-  promotional posts for the safety of   tems to make its forces more lethal.   as the inconspicuous use of technol-
        tions differently when compared to   the people in the conflict zone. Tesla   It is believed that Russia is using   ogy will be the first step to disable
        other countries as it is run by the   and SpaceX have opened the Star-  AI-enabled systems in the Ukraine   any country’s infrastructure in case
        state-owned  firms  and  not  by  the   link for Ukraine at the request of   conflict to gather surveillance foot-  of such conflicts.
        government.  Russia’s  defense  con-  the Vice Prime Minister, Mykhailo   age from drones and analyses the   Hence, it is essential to reiter-
        glomerate Rostec is working dedi-  Fedorov. Elon Musk has also made   battlefield data. There is also a pos-  ate that this technology’s range and
        catedly on building AI capabilities.   superchargers free to use in Poland,   sibility that Russia might receive   potential use in defense applications
        The Russian government is short-  Slovakia and Hungary to help peo-  advanced AI-enabled weapons from   like cyber-attacks, information war-
        handed due to its lack in a strong   ple escape from the war zone.  China in exchange for informa-    fare,  disseminating  and  detection
        defense  industrial  base.  Currently,   Russia is also engaging in three-  tion  on  the  efficient  integration  of   of disinformation, deep fakes and
        there are more than 150 AI-enabled   front  information  warfare  against   drones in combat operations. Russia   autonomous weapon systems, is
        military systems at various stages of   Ukraine which includes:     has battle-tested expertise on the   critical, challenging and ambiguous,
        development in the areas of auton-  • Disinformation: Russia has eman-  use of drones for combat operations   which in future will be the default
        omous air, underwater, surface and   cipated one of the most extensive   in Syria, which China currently does   blueprint of the war strategy.
        ground platforms.                   influence  operations  with  AI-  not have.
            AI plays a vital role in infor-  based targeted adversarial tactics   Russia has Kamikaze drones   Dr Sanur Sharma is Associate Fellow
        mation warfare, which is evident in   through  automatic  generation  of   called Lantset, which has autono-  at Manohar Parrikar Institute for
        the ongoing conflict in Ukraine, as   social media accounts and uses   mous capabilities to attack tanks or   Defense Studies and Analyses.
        it helps in analysing the vast amount   them as disinformation signal   troop concentrations by loitering
        of open-source intelligence from    generators.                     the pre-selected target and crashing   Views expressed are of the author and
        videos to Telegram posts on troops   • Cyberwarfare:  Russia  has  em-  into it with the warhead. Russia has   do not necessarily reflect the views of
        and attacks, to fact check the events   ployed advanced cyberwarfare   reportedly used these in Syria, and it   the Manohar Parrrikar IDSA or of the
        and claims made by both sides and   operations that use AI to impede   is said to have been used in Ukraine   Government of India.
        can be further used for future war   Ukrainian weapon systems and   as  well.  Some  other  uncrewed  sys-
        crime prosecutions. One issue with   shut down critical infrastructures.  tems that Russia has include the   This is the abridged version of the
        the use of such technology is deep   • Kinetic warfare:  Russia’s incur-  new version of S-70 Okhotnik which   article which appeared first in the
        fakes that use AI techniques to cre-  sion into Ukraine with 4x military   is  a stealth  combat  drone  that has   Comment section of the website (www.
        ate realistic videos to launch dis-  assets have been attributed with   the capability to hit the target from of Manohar Parrikar Institute
        information  campaigns.  However,   kinetic offensives that guide pre-  an altitude with the unguided bomb.   for Defense Studies and Analyses, New
        ML can detect such fake videos, and   cision weaponry and specialized   Russia has also procured preda-
        various social media platforms are   army units towards high-value tar-  tor-type stealth aircraft called Inok-  Delhi on March 17, 2022

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